Some are convinced that these developments are establishing auspicious conditions for significant progress and development in Africa. Henning Melber, however, cautions against excessive optimism,noting the self-interested nature of Chinese investment.
Download image Eliminating the remainder of the U. A number of factors besides currency manipulation contribute to large U. On the part of other countries, these include unfair trade policies such as subsidies, trade barriers, and illegal appropriation of the intellectual property of U.
Underinvestment in infrastructure is another critical factor.
Enacting policies to more effectively stimulate demand, including ending currency manipulation, rebuilding infrastructure, investing in clean and renewable technology industries, and eliminating unfair trade policies such as dumping, subsidies, and other unfair trade barriers are the most important steps needed to rebuild U.
New trade policies to respond to a dynamic and increasingly hostile international environment would move toward a restructuring of the world trading system so that it supports fair, balanced, and sustainable trade. And the massive public investments needed to rebuild U.
While policies that address the demand side of the equation are critical, supply-side assistance is also crucial; U. The United States and its domestic manufacturers are operating in an environment where many other countries, including Germany, Japan, China, and Korea, operate comprehensive, supply-side programs to support their traded goods industries.
The United States also needs an intermediary institution to provide working and investment capital to small and medium-sized manufacturers, which often lack access to U. In addition, federal and state governments should work with schools, unions, and manufacturers to develop improved school-to-work training programs for non-college graduates, modeled on German and Danish labor force policies.
Finally, Japan has a Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry METIa powerful agency that works to ensure that foreign trade policy complements efforts to strengthen domestic manufacturing interests.
China through its five-year plans also provides critical strategic support to manufacturing efforts. Lessons on building strong support systems from the United States and other countries The major elements of a more effective national trade and industrial policy were outlined in the previous section.
A few examples will illustrate the scale of resources and commitments required to raise manufacturing support in the United States to a level on par with other countries. In the debates about the future of manufacturing, comparisons are frequently drawn between the decline of employment in agriculture and that in manufacturing.
However, agriculture has continued to be a major U. One of the primary reasons for rising output in agriculture is the steady growth of productivity output per acre. Among the foremost reasons for the large and steady rise in agricultural productivity has been the key role played by the federal government in supporting research and its dissemination and diffusion.
Resources dedicated to this task include the U. The entity that comes closest to performing a similar role in manufacturing may be the relatively obscure National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST. Some 72 percent of USDA expenditures are for nutrition assistance the Women, Infants and Children programwhich only indirectly benefits agriculture.
However, manufacturing generated 10 times as much output as did agriculture in Thus, per dollar of economic output generated, the USDA spends more than times as much to support agriculture and related activities as NIST spends on manufacturing research and related activities.
Comparative research by Ezell and Atkinson has shown that U. As a share of GDP, Canada spends more than seven times as much as the United States on manufacturing extension and services programs, and Japan spends nearly 23 times more than the United States. It supports more than 80 research units and 60 Fraunhofer Institutes and in had a staff of 20, more than half of whom are scientists and engineers.
Almost 30 percent of its funding is provided by the German federal and state lander governments. Fraunhofer The U. GDP is approximately 4. Thus, both the German and Japanese examples suggest U. Expanding to a program of this scale would require time and resources to ensure that the needed capacities were developed and the resources well invested.
But expanding the MEP program would by no means be sufficient to restore U. As a result, over the past decade Germany has maintained a large and growing trade surplus even relative to low-wage countries outside the eurozone, despite having some of the highest manufacturing compensation rates in the world BLS There are externalities that lead U.
There are also market imperfections in capital markets that need to be addressed with new public institutions, as suggested above. These market imperfections provide an economic justification for investing public resources in activities that would enhance U.
While it is beyond the scope of this paper to detail a comprehensive program to develop a world-class environment to support U. Rebuilding manufacturing through rebalancing trade can help restructure the U. On the other hand, implementing more effective trade and industrial policies, coupled with massive investments in infrastructure, clean technologies, and renewable energy, could reduce or eliminate the U.
This would support millions of additional good jobs, add hundreds of billions of dollars to U.The Evolution of Modern States is a significant contribution to the literatures on political economy, globalization, historical institutionalism, and social science methodology.
Sep 26, · Americans have mixed views of Mexico, ‘warmer’ feelings toward Canada. Views of Mexico are mixed: While 39% say they feel “warmly” toward Mexico, 34% feel “coldly,” and 26% are neutral, according to a new Pew Research Center survey.
Measuring Globalization: The Experience of the United States of America Obie G. Whichard Bureau of Economic Analysis U.S. Department of Commerce. Globalization The expansion of world trade, communication, immigration, capital flows, and multinational business activity has generated a great deal of political controversy in recent years.
The campaigns of Ross Perot and of Patrick Buchanan provided the most-publicized outcries against globalization of trade and investment flows, and.
In The globalization of crime: a transnational organized crime threat assessment, UNODC analyses a range of key transnational crime threats, including human trafficking, migrant smuggling, the illicit heroin and cocaine trades, cybercrime, maritime piracy and trafficking in environmental resources, firearms and counterfeit goods.
TPOL S Introduction to Globalization (5) I&S Provides an introduction to the debates over globalization. Focuses on the growth and intensification of global ties. Addresses the resulting inequalities and tensions, as well as the new opportunities for cultural and political exchange.