Dwayne is the author of several books on African and African Diaspora history. Haiti and Sam Sharpe: Why these events are of historical relevance to people of African descent is that they represent the struggle for freedom on the part of enslaved Africans.
Public domain The Haitian Revolution has often been described as the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. It is certainly the only servile uprising that led to the creation of an independent nation, Haiti. Slaves initiated the rebellion in and by they had succeeded in ending not just slavery but French control over the colony.
The Haitian Revolution, however, was much more complex, consisting of several revolutions going on simultaneously. These revolutions were influenced by the French Revolution ofwhich would come to represent a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government.
In the 18th century, Saint Dominigue, as Haiti was then known, became France's wealthiest overseas colony, largely because of its production of sugar, coffee, indigo, and cotton generated by an enslaved labor force.
When the French Revolution broke out in there were five distinct sets of interest groups in the colony. There were white planters—who owned the plantations and the slaves—and petit blancs, who were artisans, shop keepers and teachers. Some of them also owned a few slaves.
Many of the whites on Saint Dominigue began to support an independence movement that began when France imposed steep tariffs on the items imported into the colony.
The planters were extremely disenchanted with France because they were forbidden to trade with any other nation. Furthermore, the white population of Saint-Dominique did not have any representation in France.
Despite their calls for independence, both the planters and petit blancs remained committed to the institution of slavery. The three remaining groups were of African descent: There were about 30, free black people in Half of them were mulatto and often they were wealthier than the petit blancs.
The slave population was close toThe runaway slaves were called maroons; they had retreated deep into the mountains of Saint Dominigue and lived off subsistence farming. Haiti had a history of slave rebellions; the slaves were never willing to submit to their status and with their strength in numbers 10 to 1 colonial officials and planters did all that was possible to control them.
Despite the harshness and cruelty of Saint Dominigue slavery, there were slave rebellions before One plot involved the poisoning of masters.
Inspired by events in France, a number of Haitian-born revolutionary movements emerged simultaneously. It was interpreted in Saint Dominigue as applying only to the planter class and thus excluded petit blancs from government.
Yet it allowed free citizens of color who were substantial property owners to participate. This legislation, promulgated in Paris to keep Saint Dominigue in the colonial empire, instead generated a three-sided civil war between the planters, free blacks and the petit blancs. However, all three groups would be challenged by the enslaved black majority which was also influenced and inspired by events in France.
By they controlled a third of the island. Despite reinforcements from France, the area of the colony held by the rebels grew as did the violence on both sides.
Before the fighting endedof theblacks and 24, of the 40, whites were killed. He abolished slavery in the Spanish-speaking colony and declared himself Governor-General for life over the entire island of Hispaniola.
At that moment the Haitian Revolution had outlasted the French Revolution which had been its inspiration. On January 1,Dessalines declared the nation independent and renamed it Haiti. France became the first nation to recognize its independence. Haiti thus emerged as the first black republic in the world, and the second nation in the western hemisphere after the United States to win its independence from a European power.
University of Tennessee, ; http:The Haitian revolution began back in when rich white colonists in Haiti felt that they needed power of free trade in their colonies.
However, this class was immediately tested by the lower working class that included white men and free men of color. The Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt that led to their permanent independence from Europe. Similar to the French Revolution, through its formulation, process, and legacy, the Haitian Revolution made an impact in the global community socially, economically, and politically.
Causes of the Haitian Revolution By , the slave population in the vast Caribbean island totaled to more than , Most of the slaves were of African descent.
The Haitian Revolution, however, was much more complex, consisting of several revolutions going on simultaneously. These revolutions were influenced by the French Revolution of , which would come to represent a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and participation in government.
The Haitian Revolution was a social and political upheaval in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (which shared the island of Hispaniola with the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo) during the period from to Why these events are of historical relevance to people of African descent is that they represent the struggle for freedom on the part of enslaved Africans.
The Haitian Revolution, which began.