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Early botany[ edit ] An engraving of the cells of corkfrom Robert Hooke 's MicrographiaBotany originated as herbalismthe study and use of plants for their medicinal properties.
Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before BC,   in archaic Avestan writings, and in works from China before it was unified in BC. De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1, years.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated.
Botanical gardens came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus — authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi — was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants.
Inusing an early microscope, Polymath Robert Hooke discovered cellsa term he coined, in corkand a short time later in living plant tissue. During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were developed comparable to dichotomous keyswhere unidentified plants are placed into taxonomic groups e.
The choice and sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely for identification diagnostic keys or more closely related to the natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys.
This established a standardised binomial or two-part naming scheme where the first name represented the genus and the second identified the species within the genus. The 24th group, Cryptogamia, included all plants with concealed reproductive parts, mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi.
Adansonde Jussieuand Candolle all proposed various alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed.
The Candollean system reflected his ideas of the progression of morphological complexity and the later classification by Bentham and Hookerwhich was influential until the midth century, was influenced by Candolle's approach.
Darwin 's publication of the Origin of Species in and his concept of common descent required modifications to the Candollean system to reflect evolutionary relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity. Botany uses Latin names for identification, here, the specific name glauca means blue.
Late modern botany[ edit ] Micropropagation of transgenic plants Building upon the gene-chromosome theory of heredity that originated with Gregor Mendel —August Weismann — proved that inheritance only takes place through gametes.
No other cells can pass on inherited characters. Her books Plant Anatomy and Anatomy of Seed Plants have been key plant structural biology texts for more than half a century.
The concept that the composition of plant communities such as temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological succession was developed by Henry Chandler CowlesArthur Tansley and Frederic Clements.
Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to biology.
These developments, coupled with new methods for measuring the size of stomatal apertures, and the rate of photosynthesis have enabled precise description of the rates of gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Thimann in enabled regulation of plant growth by externally applied chemicals.
Frederick Campion Steward pioneered techniques of micropropagation and plant tissue culture controlled by plant hormones. With the rise of the related molecular-scale biological approaches of molecular biologygenomicsproteomics and metabolomicsthe relationship between the plant genome and most aspects of the biochemistry, physiology, morphology and behaviour of plants can be subjected to detailed experimental analysis.
These technologies enable the biotechnological use of whole plants or plant cell cultures grown in bioreactors to synthesise pesticidesantibiotics or other pharmaceuticalsas well as the practical application of genetically modified crops designed for traits such as improved yield.
Molecular analysis of DNA sequences from most families of flowering plants enabled the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group to publish in a phylogeny of flowering plants, answering many of the questions about relationships among angiosperm families and species.
The study of plants is vital because they underpin almost all animal life on Earth by generating a large proportion of the oxygen and food that provide humans and other organisms with aerobic respiration with the chemical energy they need to exist.
Plants, algae and cyanobacteria are the major groups of organisms that carry out photosynthesisa process that uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide  into sugars that can be used both as a source of chemical energy and of organic molecules that are used in the structural components of cells.
In addition, they are influential in the global carbon and water cycles and plant roots bind and stabilise soils, preventing soil erosion. At each of these levels, a botanist may be concerned with the classification taxonomyphylogeny and evolutionstructure anatomy and morphologyor function physiology of plant life.
Embryophytes are multicellular eukaryotes descended from an ancestor that obtained its energy from sunlight by photosynthesis. They have life cycles with alternating haploid and diploid phases.
The sexual haploid phase of embryophytes, known as the gametophytenurtures the developing diploid embryo sporophyte within its tissues for at least part of its life,  even in the seed plants, where the gametophyte itself is nurtured by its parent sporophyte.
However, attention is still given to these groups by botanists, and fungi including lichens and photosynthetic protists are usually covered in introductory botany courses.
Cyanobacteriathe first oxygen-releasing photosynthetic organisms on Earth, are thought to have given rise to the ancestor of plants by entering into an endosymbiotic relationship with an early eukaryote, ultimately becoming the chloroplasts in plant cells.
The new photosynthetic plants along with their algal relatives accelerated the rise in atmospheric oxygen started by the cyanobacteriachanging the ancient oxygen-free, reducingatmosphere to one in which free oxygen has been abundant for more than 2 billion years. Human nutrition The food we eat comes directly or indirectly from plants such as rice.
Virtually all staple foods come either directly from primary production by plants, or indirectly from animals that eat them. This is what ecologists call the first trophic level.According to research conducted at Harvard University, omega-3 fatty acid deficiency is officially one of the top 10 causes of death in America, claiming the lives of up to 96, people each year.
Out of the 12 dietary, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors examined in the study, omega-3 fatty acid deficiency ranked as the sixth highest killer of Americans.
CBD Clinical Trials. There are numerous clinical trials trying to determine which medical conditions could potentially be treated with CBD. Big pharma normally conducts these trials as they can appreciate that CBD has enormous medical possibilities.
Today, I want to discuss something related, but more accessible, to medical marijuana that has made a major impact on my life: CBD (cannabidiol) derived from Hemp. Hemp vs. marijuana. As I explained in my medical marijuana article, the compounds that are most helpful for our symptoms are called cannabinoids.
Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are caused by a drop in insulin sensitivity blamed on “intramyocellular lipid,” the buildup of fat inside our muscle cells.
Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr.
Meier, Christoph and Vito Mediavilla Factors influencing the yield and the quality of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) essential oil. Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(1): The aim of this work was to assess the factors influencing the yield and the quality of hemp essential oil.
Industrial hemp is a low-concentration THC variety of the cannabis plant intended to be used for industrial (e.g., fiber and seed).
This is intended to inform the public, including institutions of higher education and State departments of agriculture, how Federal law applies to activities associated with industrial hemp that is grown and.