It is hard nowadays to appreciate the misery and deaths caused by infectious diseases, which were common and potentially lethal. In there were 3, cases of diphtheria with deaths.
Early history[ edit ] Rotherham in the late Medieval period Iron Age and Roman settlements dot the area covered by the district, including a small Roman fort to the south-west in the upper flood meadow of the Don at Templeborough.
Rotherham was founded in the very early Middle Ages. The river name was carried into Old English from Brittonic branch of Celtic words: Following the Norman Conquest an absentee lord held the most inhabited manorNigel Fossard however today's city proper takes in eight outyling Domesday estates.
The Domesday 'Book' or Survey records this lord of the manor with a Norman name took the place of the Saxon lord Hakon holding 20 years before in and was tenant of an overlord of hundreds of such manors, Robert de Mortainthe Conqueror's half-brother. The central assets at the time were medium in rank among manors: The manor's other resources were a church, four loosely called 'acres' of meadow, and seven of woodland.
Rotherham had a mill valued at an ordinary half of one pound sterling. In the mid 13th century, John de Vesci and Ralph de Tili gave all their possessions in Rotherham to Rufford Abbeya period of growing wealth in the church.
The monks collected tithes from the town and gained rights to an extra market day on Monday and to extend the annual fair from two to three days. It was suppressed in but revived in as the feoffees of the common lands of Rotherham, and remains in existence.
It was the first brick building in what is now South Yorkshire and taught theologyreligious chant and hymnsgrammar and writing.
The college was dissolved in in the reign of Edward VIits assets stripped for the crown to grant to its supporters. Very little remains of the original building in College Street. Its fragments of walls are the earliest surviving brick structure in South Yorkshire and are remains of the key institution to Rotherham's growth into a town of regional significance.
Sixty years after the College's dissolution Rotherham was described by a wealthy visitor as falling from a fashionable college town to having admitted gambling and vice.
The history of Thomas Rotherham and education in the town are remembered in the name of Thomas Rotherham College. Exploitation of the coal seams was the driving force behind the improvements to navigation on the River Don, which eventually formed the Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation system of navigable inland waterways.
In the early Industrial Revolution major uses of iron demanded good local ore and established processing skills for iron strength, qualities found in Rotherham's smelting plants and foundries.
Iron, and later steelbecame the principal industry in Rotherham, surviving into the 20th century. The Walker family built an iron and steel empire in the 18th century, their foundries producing high quality cannonincluding some for the ship of the line HMS Victoryand cast iron bridgesone of which was commissioned by Thomas Paine.
The Parkgate Ironworks was established in by Sanderson and Watson, and changed ownership several times. The company was purchased by Tube Investments Ltd in and closed in The operation closed down in Holmes Engine Works advertisement Holmes station was located close to the works of Isaac Dodds and Sonpioneers in the development of railway technology.
Later railway stations included Parkgate and Aldwarke railway station on the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railwaywhich opened in Julythe Parkgate and Rawmarsh railway station on the North Midland Railway and the Rotherham Masborough railway station also on the North Midland Railway.
Joseph Foljambe established a factory to produce his Rotherham plough, the first commercially successful iron plough. The glass works operated on the same site, although the family connection ceased and the company is owned by Newship Ltd, a holding company linked to the industrialist John Watson Newman.
It continues to the manufacture glass containers for the pharmaceuticalfood and drinks industries. The district abounds in mineral wealth; coal and iron ore are found in great profusion, and have been wrought from [long ago].
The town was formerly celebrated for its manufacture of edge tools; and inthere were mines of ironstonesmelting-furnaces, and forges in the neighbourhood.
But the most extraordinary establishments of this kind, of late years, were the iron-foundries belonging to Messrs. Walker, in which immense quantities of cannon of the largest calibre were wrought for government during the war, till the works were given up by the original proprietors, and let out to small capitalists.
The spinning of flax affords employment to about persons; there are manufactories for rope and for starch, a large malting establishment, two large ale and porter breweries, several oil and chemical works, and a glass-[making] house. Some other manufactories and works are noticed in the article on Masbrough.
The Don, which is navigable to Sheffield, communicates with the river Aire on the north-east, with the Stainforth and Keadby canal on the east, with the Dearne and Dove canal and the Barnsley canal on the north-west, and consequently with the river Calder; by which means Rotherham enjoys [goods trade] with all the principal towns in the great manufacturing districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire.
In an act was passed for making a railway to Sheffield, with a branch to the Greasbrough canal and coal-field; it was opened [in]and the distance is about six miles The market is on Monday, for corn, cattle, and provisions: A court leet is held annually, at which constables and other officers for the internal regulation of the town are appointed — A Topographical Dictionary of England, Samuel LewisFrancesca Unsworth is Director, News and Current Affairs.
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