Centuries of systematic investigation and analysis of information about the world's peoples, informs us that there is no consistent relationship of skin color to "race. Further, geneticists have discovered that there are different sets of genes controlling skin color that are triggered for other reasons in different populations.
Theoretical approaches[ edit ] "How to Spot a Jap"produced by the United States Army, attempts to describe the visual differences between Japanese and Chinese, a distinction Conclusion to race and ethnicity was difficult for US soldiers.
Click for a larger image. History[ edit ] The first research on the cross-race effect was published in All else being equal, individuals of a given race are distinguishable from each other in proportion to their familiarity or contact with the race as a whole.
Thus, to the uninitiated Caucasian, all East Asian people look alike, while to East Asian people, all Caucasian people look alike. This does not hold true when people of different races familiarize themselves with races different from their own. Ingroup advantage[ edit ] Cross-race effect has a strong connection with the ingroup advantage phenomenon.
With ingroup advantage, people evaluate and judge members of their own self-defined group as being better and fairer than members of other groups outgroup disadvantage. Social psychologists have demonstrated in the last 30 years that even the smallest aspect of differentiation, like preference for flavor of ice cream or style of music, can trigger ingroup advantage.
If the group-building factor is a person's race, then cross-race effect appears. The favoritism of ingroup members also results from the decreased inborn motivation to read the face of a person of another group or culture.
These findings apply to all races in the same way. Categorical thinking happens more consistently for outgroup participants while individuation does the exact opposite.
Overall, the creation of norms has shaped and biased even simple perceptions such as line lengths.
In terms of perception of faces, studies have shown that racially ambiguous faces that have been identified as one race or another based on their hairstyle are identified as having more features of the racial category represented by the hairstyle.
Similarly, faces of an ambiguous but equal shade are interpreted as darker or lighter when accompanied by the label of either "black" or "white", respectively. This suggests that race seems to be a more perceptually salient feature than other more discerning facial features when the face belongs to a different race.
However, these exemplar-based theories cannot explain why faces that are ambiguous in terms of social category information can influence recognition. Contact hypothesis theory[ edit ] One method researchers have suggested to help mollify the prevelence of the cross race effect is through application of the contact hypothesis.
Accurate recognition and identification of other-race faces, researchers have deduced, stems from a difference in learning experiences that relate to individual ethnic groups.
The cross-race effect is evident among all people of all different races. The facial appearance is morphologically different for different ethnic backgrounds. This has been established empirically,  wherein a large set of 3D scans of faces from different ethnic backgrounds was automatically clustered into groups.
Only facial landmark distances were used in this grouping. The result was that gender, as well as ethnicity, emerged as primary factors of group membership.
This differs from the cross-race bias because this effect is found mostly during eyewitness identification as well as identification of a suspect in a line-up. In these situations, many people feel as if races other than their own look alike, and they have difficulty distinguishing between members of different ethnic groups.
Cross-race identification bias is also known as the misinformation effect since people are considered to be misinformed about other races and have difficulty identifying them.
In a study dealing with eyewitness testimony, investigators examined forty participants in a racially diverse area of the US. Participants watched a video of a property crime being committed, then in the next 24 hours came to pick the suspect out of a photo line-up.
Most of the participants in the study either misidentified the suspect or stated the suspect was not in the line-up at all. Correct identification of the suspect occurred more often when the eyewitness and the suspect were of the same race.
The clerks tended to identify customers belonging to their own race accurately, but were more likely to make errors when attempting to identify other races members. However, data gathered from multiple studies does show that the own-race bias is consistent.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message In a globalized world, in which different cultures and races collaborate and negotiate about contracts, licenses, rights and political decisions, one clearly sees the negative impacts of the cross-race effect.
Consequences of the cross-race effect include reduced emotional intelligence, negative evaluation of trustworthiness, reduced ability to communicate, lack of empathy and a decreased ability to judge the overall situation of a negotiation. Ways to reduce cross-race effect[ edit ] A study was done in which participants were forewarned about cross-race effect.
Results from this study showed that the cross-race effect could be reduced and sometimes even eliminated when participants were wary of it. There is an own-gender bias, although evidence suggests that this comes down to hair style recognition.Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality was a tough subject to tackle, but I realized after several drafts of this essay (the main problem stopping me from writing it effectively was thinking that it was a factually based essay) that this essay was opinion based.
A discussion of concepts of race and how ethnicity relates to factors like language, skin color, geography and genetics. Effects of race and ethnicity on perceptions of leadership. The first set of study focuses generally on the questions of how the race-ethnicity of the leaders and/or of the groups influence absolutely or negatively perceptions of leadership.
starting to become comfortable in my own skin and being surrounded in an ethnic school with all different cultures, and not just whites, that allowed me to really embrace my racial difference. High school is where, whether subconscious or not, racial sub-cultures emerge.
In high school, cliques are formed on that very aspect of ethnicity and culture. Barbara H. Peterson. Farm Wars. There is a move afoot to reprogram humanity. To redefine it in the limited terms of scientific understanding, place it in a box, and then, all wrapped up in a pretty package, attempt to deliver this convoluted mess to us as progress.
Asian American Youth: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity [Jennifer Lee, Min Zhou] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Asian American Youth covers topics such as Asian immigration, acculturation, assimilation, intermarriage.