The Book[ edit ] Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering and affirming it, passionately and joyously affirmed the meaning of their own existence.
The Book[ edit ] Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism and nihilism of a fundamentally meaningless world. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering and affirming it, passionately and joyously affirmed the meaning of their The birth of tragedy and the existence.
They knew themselves to be infinitely more than petty individuals, finding self-affirmation not in another life, not in a world to come, but in the terror and ecstasy alike celebrated in the performance of tragedies.
Originally educated as a philologistNietzsche discusses the history of the tragic form and introduces an intellectual dichotomy between the Dionysian and the Apollonian very loosely: Nietzsche claims life always involves a struggle between these two elements, each battling for control over the existence of humanity.
In Nietzsche's words, "Wherever the Dionysian prevailed, the Apollonian was checked and destroyed Nietzsche argues that the tragedy of Ancient Greece was the highest form of art due to its mixture of both Apollonian and Dionysian elements into one seamless whole, allowing the spectator to experience the full spectrum of the human condition.
The Dionysian element was to be found in the music of the choruswhile the Apollonian element was found in the dialogue which gave a concrete symbolism that balanced the Dionysian revelry.
Basically, the Apollonian spirit was able to give form to the abstract Dionysian. Before the tragedy, there was an era of static, idealized plastic art in the form of sculpture that represented the Apollonian view of the world.
The Dionysian element was to be found in the wild revelry of festivals and drunkenness, but, most importantly, in music. The combination of these elements in one art form gave birth to tragedy.
He theorizes that the chorus was originally always satyrsgoat-men. It's a vision of the god, of Dionysus, who appears before the chorus on the stage.
And the actors and the plot are the development of that dream vision, the essence of which is the ecstatic dismembering of the god and of the Bacchantes ' rituals, of the inseparable ecstasy and suffering of human existence.
After the time of Aeschylus and Sophoclesthere was an age where tragedy died.
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Nietzsche ties this to the influence of writers like Euripides and the coming of rationality, represented by Socrates. Euripides reduced the use of the chorus and was more naturalistic in his representation of human drama, making it more reflective of the realities of daily life.
Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. For Nietzsche, these two intellectuals helped drain the ability of the individual to participate in forms of art, because they saw things too soberly and rationally.
The participation mystique aspect of art and myth was lost, and along with it, much of man's ability to live creatively in optimistic harmony with the sufferings of life.
Nietzsche concludes that it may be possible to reattain the balance of Dionysian and Apollonian in modern art through the operas of Richard Wagnerin a rebirth of tragedy. In contrast to the typical Enlightenment view of ancient Greek culture as noble, simple, elegant and grandiose, Nietzsche believed the Greeks were grappling with pessimism.From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Birth of Tragedy Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays.
As The Birth of Tragedy was Nietzsche's first published book, it is a rather awkwardly written representation of his early ideas.
Nietzsche lamented as much in a supplementary preface, which he wrote fifteen years later in /5.
The Birth of Tragedy and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App/5(). tragedy, but he also asserts, with remarkably original insights, the relations between art and science, Greek civilization and the modern era, and tragic.
The Birth of Tragedy Friedrich Nietzsche ()This translation by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC 1 We will have achieved much for the study of aesthetics when we come, not merely to a logical.
The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (German: Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) is an work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It was reissued in as The Birth of Tragedy, Or.